Black History, Reading

Final Celebration of #BlackHistory 2018

The Case of General Motors and 5 Black Women

In DeGraffenreid, five Black women brought suit against General Motors, alleging that the employer’s seniority system perpetuated the effects of past discrimination against Black women. Evidence adduced at trial revealed that General Motors simply did not hire Black women prior to 1964 and that all of the Black women hired after 1970 lost their jobs in a seniority-based layoff during a subsequent recession. The district court granted summary judgment for the defendant, rejecting the plaintiffs’ attempt to bring a suit not on behalf of Blacks or women, but specifically on behalf of Black women.

The court stated:

[P]laintiffs have failed’ to cite any decisions which have stated that Black women are a special class to be protected from discrimination. The Court’s own research has failed to disclose such a decision. The plaintiffs are clearly entitled to a remedy if they have been discriminated against. However, they should not be allowed to combine statutory remedies to create a new ‘super-remedy’ which would give them relief beyond what the drafters of the relevant statutes intended. Thus, this lawsuit must be examined to see if it states a cause of action for race discrimination, sex discrimination, or alternatively either, but not a combination of both.’

Although General Motors did not hire Black women prior to 1964, the court noted that “General Motors has hired female employees for a number of years prior to the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.”‘ Because General Motors did hire women-albeit white women-during the period that no Black women were hired, there was, in the court’s view, no sex discrimination that the seniority system could conceivably have perpetuated.

In Brittany Cooper’s book – Beyond Respectability – The Intellectual Thought of Race Women the historical process of elimination black woman has and is prevalent right before our very eyes.  She contends that black women’s participation in black liberation and feminist struggles has been either erased or framed around their roles as activists, rarely affording them the title of public intellectual despite their formidable theoretical outputs.  Incorporating the lives of

Fannie Barrier Williams – Fannie Barrier Williams was an educator, political activist, and women’s rights advocate who worked for advancement opportunities of African Americans. She called especially for social and educational reforms to improve the plight of black women in the Southern States of the U.S.

 

 

Mary Church Terrell – Mary Church Terrell, a writer, educator, and activist, co-founded the National Association of Colored Women and served as the organization’s first president. Known as “Mollie” to her family, Church who was born in Memphis, Tennessee in 1863, lived a life of privilege due to the economic success of her parents, both former slaves.

 

 

Pauli Murray – In 1963 she became one of the first to criticize the sexism of the civil rights movement, in her speech “The Negro Woman and the Quest for Equality”.

 

 

 

 

 Toni Cade Bambara – Originally named Miltona Mirkin Cade at birth, Toni Cade Bambara was a civil rights activist, writer, teacher, and filmmaker.  She was born in 1939 in Harlem, New York.  At the age of six, she changed her name to Toni, and in 1970 she added the surname Bambara after finding it among her great-grandmother’s belongings.Bambara earned her BA in theater arts/English at Queens College in 1959, the same year she published “Sweet Town,” her first short story.  She was a social investigator from 1959 to 1961, and then worked in the psychiatry department of New York City’s Metropolitan Hospital.  During that time she studied in Florence as well as Paris, and earned an MA degree from City College of New York in 1964.  In 1965, she was hired to teach English at the City University of New York’s fledgling SEEK program for economically-disadvantaged students.  While there, she published short stories and became interested in film production.  From 1969 to 1974 she was an associate professor of English at Livingston College.

Source:  Beyond Respectability The Intellectual Thought Of Race Women, Black Past.org

Crenshaw, Kimberle () “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black  Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics,” University of Chicago Legal Forum: Vol. 1989: Iss. 1, Article 8.

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Black History, Black Lives Matter

President Obama Signs ‘Emmett Till Bill’ To Reopen Civil Rights Cold Cases

Well, well, well now that’s a gift!!!! Merry Christmas,

The new legislation will allow civil rights cold cases that happened prior to 1970 to be reopened.

Source: President Obama Signs ‘Emmett Till Bill’ To Reopen Civil Rights Cold Cases

Black Lives Matter, Community, Education

Closing Schools In Hartford’s North End Would Violate Civil Rights

hartford-school-closing-101716

I read this article today and was not surprised by the alleged decisions; I was no longer emotionally hurt by a lack of parental involvement – face it if the parents made their voice heard this conversation between those that have the power and those that have the power would go in an entirely different direction.

The Greater Hartford branch of the NAACP is calling on city leaders to reject proposals that would close North End schools, saying the plans violate the civil rights of black and Latino students in the city.

Back in 1955 the Montgomery Bus Boycott was a protest against segregated public facilities in Alabama, was led by Martin Luther King Jr. and lasted for 381 days. 60 years later are we still talking about the civil rights of our children’s education?! Furthermore, Hispanics or Latinos are not a race but an ethnic identification, like Italian American, Irish American, Greek American, German American. Have you ever asked why the distinction?!

“We are deeply concerned and disturbed by the actions of the Hartford Board of Education, for systematically divesting in schools located in the north-end; leaving our students and families ill-equipped to compete educationally,” Ansari wrote.

hartford-no-diploma-rates-1980-2000-as-of-101716
When a picture is worth a 1000 High School Degrees…

In a written response to Ansari’s letter, Hartford Board of Education Chairman Richard Wareing wrote that the proposals are merely the suggestions of a consultant and do not represent any decision-making by the board.

In an article written on April 28, 2015, the Hartford Current posted this statement: HARTFORD — A 3-mile swath of North Hartford has been named a Federal Promise Zone, a designation that local leaders hope will spark an infusion of manpower and money to one of the capital city’s neediest areas. The Federal Government provided grant money (aka Promise Zone) to the tune of  $2,000,000  eligible applicants must be State, local, or tribal government entity, represented by a Chief Executive, such as a governor, mayor, or other elected leader, or the head of a State, local, or tribal agency.

hartford-northeast-incarceration-rate-2003-as-of-101716
The area with the highest rate of incarcerated persons is the North East District.

 

“We are deeply concerned and disturbed by the actions of the Hartford Board of Education, for systematically divesting in schools located in the north-end; leaving our students and families ill-equipped to compete educationally,” Ansari wrote.

Where are the parents, who let the school system get to this state, what agency is angry with what organization for not sharing in the wealth of our failing school system?

Sources:

NAACP: Closing Schools In Hartford’s North End Would Violate Civil Rights
Hartford’s North End Designated Federal ‘Promise Zone’
Federal Promise Zone US Grant
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