Sellout according to Oxford’s Dictionary definition – a betrayal of one’s principles for reasons of expedience. Furthermore it states:
Source: The Black Star Project
Sellout according to Oxford’s Dictionary definition – a betrayal of one’s principles for reasons of expedience. Furthermore it states:
Source: The Black Star Project
In DeGraffenreid, five Black women brought suit against General Motors, alleging that the employer’s seniority system perpetuated the effects of past discrimination against Black women. Evidence adduced at trial revealed that General Motors simply did not hire Black women prior to 1964 and that all of the Black women hired after 1970 lost their jobs in a seniority-based layoff during a subsequent recession. The district court granted summary judgment for the defendant, rejecting the plaintiffs’ attempt to bring a suit not on behalf of Blacks or women, but specifically on behalf of Black women.
The court stated:
[P]laintiffs have failed’ to cite any decisions which have stated that Black women are a special class to be protected from discrimination. The Court’s own research has failed to disclose such a decision. The plaintiffs are clearly entitled to a remedy if they have been discriminated against. However, they should not be allowed to combine statutory remedies to create a new ‘super-remedy’ which would give them relief beyond what the drafters of the relevant statutes intended. Thus, this lawsuit must be examined to see if it states a cause of action for race discrimination, sex discrimination, or alternatively either, but not a combination of both.’
Although General Motors did not hire Black women prior to 1964, the court noted that “General Motors has hired … female employees for a number of years prior to the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.”‘ Because General Motors did hire women-albeit white women-during the period that no Black women were hired, there was, in the court’s view, no sex discrimination that the seniority system could conceivably have perpetuated.
In Brittany Cooper’s book – Beyond Respectability – The Intellectual Thought of Race Women the historical process of elimination black woman has and is prevalent right before our very eyes. She contends that black women’s participation in black liberation and feminist struggles has been either erased or framed around their roles as activists, rarely affording them the title of public intellectual despite their formidable theoretical outputs. Incorporating the lives of
Fannie Barrier Williams – Fannie Barrier Williams was an educator, political activist, and women’s rights advocate who worked for advancement opportunities of African Americans. She called especially for social and educational reforms to improve the plight of black women in the Southern States of the U.S.
Mary Church Terrell – Mary Church Terrell, a writer, educator, and activist, co-founded the National Association of Colored Women and served as the organization’s first president. Known as “Mollie” to her family, Church who was born in Memphis, Tennessee in 1863, lived a life of privilege due to the economic success of her parents, both former slaves.
Pauli Murray – In 1963 she became one of the first to criticize the sexism of the civil rights movement, in her speech “The Negro Woman and the Quest for Equality”.
Toni Cade Bambara – Originally named Miltona Mirkin Cade at birth, Toni Cade Bambara was a civil rights activist, writer, teacher, and filmmaker. She was born in 1939 in Harlem, New York. At the age of six, she changed her name to Toni, and in 1970 she added the surname Bambara after finding it among her great-grandmother’s belongings.Bambara earned her BA in theater arts/English at Queens College in 1959, the same year she published “Sweet Town,” her first short story. She was a social investigator from 1959 to 1961, and then worked in the psychiatry department of New York City’s Metropolitan Hospital. During that time she studied in Florence as well as Paris, and earned an MA degree from City College of New York in 1964. In 1965, she was hired to teach English at the City University of New York’s fledgling SEEK program for economically-disadvantaged students. While there, she published short stories and became interested in film production. From 1969 to 1974 she was an associate professor of English at Livingston College.
Source: Beyond Respectability The Intellectual Thought Of Race Women, Black Past.org
Crenshaw, Kimberle () “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics,” University of Chicago Legal Forum: Vol. 1989: Iss. 1, Article 8.
The Dialectical Fluidity of Race —
Between self-definition and other-definition, between an individual’s chosen racial identity versus society’s imposed racial identity — facilitates an understanding of race as a social construction
Ben Carson – Slaves and the Carnival Cruise Ship Filled with Hot Dying Men/Women and Children with Dreams and Aspiration of a Better Africa
WASHINGTON ― Ben Carson made his debut as secretary of Housing and Urban Development Monday by telling agency employees about the virtues of the “can-do” American society. Carson said this value system was best exemplified by slaves, whom he characterized as immigrants who came to the United States with very little and worked very hard.
“That’s what America is about,” Carson said. “A land of dreams and opportunity. There were other immigrants who came here in the bottom of slave ships, worked even longer, even harder for less. But they too had a dream that one day their sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters, great grandsons, great granddaughters might pursue prosperity and happiness in this land.”
By 1830 slavery was primarily located in the South, where it existed in many different forms. African Americans were enslaved on small farms, large plantations, in cities and towns, inside homes, out in the fields, and in industry and transportation.
Though slavery had such a wide variety of faces, the underlying concepts were always the same. Slaves were considered property, and they were property because they were black. Their status as property was enforced by violence — actual or threatened. People, black and white, lived together within these parameters, and their lives together took many forms.
Enslaved African Americans could never forget their status as property, no matter how well their owners treated them. But it would be too simplistic to say that all masters and slaves hated each other. Human beings who live and work together are bound to form relationships of some kind, and some masters and slaves genuinely cared for each other. But the caring was tempered and limited by the power imbalance under which it grew. Within the narrow confines of slavery, human relationships ran the gamut from compassionate to contemptuous. But the masters and slaves never approached equality.
Black Group Identity
Work on Black group identity is not easy to characterize, in part because of relatively limited research on this issue, especially that which examines ethnic group differences (Porter and Washington, 1993). Typically, analysis highlights the influence of social class on identity (e.g., Landry, 1987; Farley, 1984). Some inquiry suggests that class is only a part of the puzzle. Broman et al. (1988) reveal that older, less-educated respondents in urban areas and highly-educated Blacks living outside the West were most likely to feel close to other Blacks. Gurin et al. (1989) show that identity, defined as common fate and as more Black than American, was not simply related to class. Males and those of upperclass status were more likely to feel a common fate with Blacks. Younger Blacks and those who did not work full-time were also more likely to feel more Black than American. Williams, T. K., & Thornton, M. C. (1998).
Introduction to the Subfield
The sociology of race and ethnicity began to take shape in the late 19th century. The American sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois, who was the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. at Harvard, is credited with pioneering the subfield within the United States with his famous and still widely taught books The Souls of Black Folk and Black Reconstruction.
However, the subfield today differs greatly from its early stages. When early American sociologists focused on race and ethnicity, du Bois excepted, they tended to focus on the concepts of integration, acculturation, and assimilation, in keeping with the view of the U.S. as a “melting pot” into which difference should be absorbed. Concerns during the early 20th century were for teaching those who differed visually, culturally, or linguistically from the white Ango-Saxon norms how to think, speak, and act in accordance with them. This approach to studying race and ethnicity framed those who were not white Anglo-Saxon as problems that needed to be solved and was directed primarily by sociologists who were white men from middle to upper-class families.
As more people of color and women became social scientists throughout the twentieth century, they created and developed theoretical perspectives that differed from the normative approach in sociology, and crafted research from different standpoints that shifted the analytic focus from particular populations to social relations and the social system.
Note: Ben Carson you should take another look…
Source: Huffington Post
Source: The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, George P. Rawick, General Editor, with A Comprehensive Name Index for The American Slave, compiled by Howard E. Potts and Subject Index, from Index to The American Slave, edited by Donald M. Jacobs, assisted by Steven Fershleiser.
Source: Williams, T. K., & Thornton, M. C. (1998). Social construction of ethnicity versus personal experience: The case of afro-amerasians. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(2), 255-267. Retrieved from http://nclive.org/cgi-bin/nclsm?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/232586794?accountid=13217
This is best sign I have seen so far. Notice race isn’t brought up. We bring up the pressure of being a police officer, but don’t address what goes through a persons mind when a gun is put in their face by a police officer. I sympathize with anyone being killed unjustly. That includes the 5 police officers in Dallas. I hope we keep having open dialogue between law enforcement & the communities which they protect. We need as a society to think outside or ourselves. Do I think all cops are bad, NO. Do I know what it’s like to be black, NO. But I’m raising black kids. So this issue is important to me. When I hear Black Lives Matter, what I think ppl are saying is Black Ppl want to be safe & treated fairly, says Gary Owen
Folks are protesting, and people are getting killed during and around the protesting. I’m quite sure this is very different from one the more successful protest, i.e. The Boston Tea Party, or the many “non-violent” protest led by Martin Luther King.
It seems today is re-aligning itself with days gone by or have they gone anywhere? Has the tree hangings turned in bullets raging across the lives of both innocent and guilty?
This complex social situation is perhaps best summed up by King himself in his “Letter from Birmingham Jail”, written to members of the Birmingham clergy and religious community who had urged patience and restraint of the civil rights movement. Of the Black Nationalist movement, King notes:
“The other force is one of bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence. It is expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are springing up across the nation, the largest and best-known being Elijah Muhammad’s Muslim movement. Nourished by the Negro’s frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the white man is an incorrigible “devil.” I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the “do-nothingism” of the complacent nor the hatred and despair of the black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest.”
Have we has a people merely tolerated too much for too long? Have we scraped the bottom of the barrel and found there is no pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. Have we been oppressed so long that even the Word of God no longer prevails? Have ever actually given God a try?
Scripture states in II Timothy 3 –
3 But mark this: There will be terrible times in the last days. 2 People will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boastful, proud, abusive, disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3 without love, unforgiving, slanderous, without self-control, brutal, not lovers of the good, 4 treacherous, rash, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God— 5 having a form of godliness but denying its power. Have nothing to do with such people.
That’s some harsh direct information from Paul. He proclaimed we would be without self-control, boastful and proud sound a lot like some of us already falling into these categories. If Paul was right and these are the signs of the “last days” how far are we from the “Last” day and if we are not even close I shutter to think what this world will look like next year based on the behavior of folks today.
NIV Bible – 2 Timothy 2 New International Version (NIV)
DALLAS (AP) — A police officer in the small Texas town where Sandra Bland was pulled over and jailed says the county’s top prosecutors threatened to end his career if he came forward with what he says is evidence of wrongdoing, an accusation the prosecutors deny. Among the things Prairie View officer Michael Kelley said…
50 killed described as The Deadliest Mass Shooting in U.S. History is not true! Come with me as we ride back in time.
East St. Louis Massacre of 1917 The name refers to a race riot that occurred in the industrial city of East St. Louis, Illinois, over July 2-3, 1917. It is also referred to as the “East St. Louis Riot.” As historians have looked at its various causes, they have labeled it in different ways, depending on what aspect of it they have focused their attention on. Some recent historians have called it a “pogrom” against African Americans in that civil authorities in the city and the state appear to have been at least complicit in—if not explicitly responsible for—the outbreak of violence. Even in 1917, some commentators already made the comparison between the East St. Louis disturbance and pogroms against Jews that were occurring at the time in Russia.
Roving mobs rampaged through the city for a day and a night, burning the homes and businesses of African Americans, stopping street cars to pull their victims into the street, and assaulting and murdering men, women, and children who they happened to encounter. A memorial petition to the U.S. Congress, sent by a citizen committee from East St. Louis described it as “a very orgy of inhuman butchery during which more than fifty colored men, women, and children were beaten with bludgeons, stoned, shot, drowned, hanged or burned to death—all without any effective interference on the part of the police, sheriff or military authorities.” In fact, estimates of the number of people killed ranged from 40 to more than 150. Six thousand people fled from their homes in the city, either out of fear for their lives or because mobs had burned their houses. On July 1, white men driving a car through a black neighborhood began shooting into houses, stores, and a church. A group of black men organized themselves to defend against the attackers. As they gathered together, they mistook an approaching car for the same one that had earlier driven through the neighborhood and they shot and killed both men in the car, who were, in fact, police detectives sent to calm the situation. Racial competition and conflict emerged from this. The established unions in East St. Louis resented the African American workers as “scabs” and strike breakers. On May 28-29, a union meeting whose 3,000 attendees marched on the mayor’s office to make demands about “unfair” competition devolved into a mob that rioted through the streets, destroyed buildings, and assaulted African Americans at random. The Illinois governor sent in the National Guard to stop the riot, but over the next few weeks, black neighborhood associations, fearful of their safety, organized for their own protection and determined that they would fight back if attacked again.
Elaine Race Riot of 1919
The Elaine Massacre was by far the deadliest racial confrontation in Arkansas history and possibly the bloodiest racial conflict in the history of the United States. While its deepest roots lay in the state’s commitment to white supremacy, the events in Elaine stemmed from tense race relations and growing concerns about labor unions. A shooting incident that occurred at a meeting of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union escalated into mob violence on the part of the white people in Elaine (Phillips County) and surrounding areas. Although the exact number is unknown, estimates of the number of African Americans killed by whites range into the hundreds; five white people lost their lives.
The conflict began on the night of September 30, 1919, when approximately 100 African Americans, mostly sharecroppers on the plantations of white landowners, attended a meeting of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America at a church in Hoop Spur (Phillips County), three miles north of Elaine. The purpose of the meeting, one of several by black sharecroppers in the Elaine area during the previous months, was to obtain better payments for their cotton crops from the white plantation owners who dominated the area during the Jim Crow era. Black sharecroppers were often exploited in their efforts to collect payment for their cotton crops.
The East St. Louis Massacre of 1917
Between 1824 and 1943 there were over 300 events classified as “Race Riots” in which entire white communities turn on and murdered, maimed and destroyed entire Black communities. There were 26 such events in major cities during the summer of 1919 alone. This period has been tagged by historians as “The Red Summer of 1919”. Between the months of April and September of that year, tens of hundreds of Black Americans were killed or maimed for economic, social, political and other reasons. They caused over 375,000 Blacks to leave the Southern border states and flood the North. In the riots in the farthest northern states, many Blacks recalled the East St. Louis race riot and dared to fight back. The most recognized massacre of Blacks in mass was depicted in the movie “Rosewood” in which the Black township in Florida was destroyed and an estimated 150 Blacks were killed in 1923 and more recently revealed Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, were an estimated 300 to 3000 Blacks were killed and over 7800 were left homeless. Whites used airplanes and dynamite to bomb and destroy over 600 Black businesses in a 35 square block area. The Tulsa riot is also known as the story of “Black Wall Street”.
Would it be fair to say Black folk are still invisible no matter how far we “think” we have come, this land is not our land. Yet we pledge our allegiance in school, in the bank, in our associations with others and even in our disassociations, we divorce family members based on their behavior, we exclude those we deem not of the “right” distinction to be included in the club. We outcast, filter-out, walk away from, leave, divorce, separate, split, detach, sever, breach and annihilate anyone who dares to infiltrate our club of “We are better than you because we don’t ______________”. Yet every day we walk around with our eyes wide shut to global exclusion of all of us.
As I walk down a street in my neighborhood, where 98.5% of everyone looks like me, yet no one who looks like me owns an establishment on the street in my neighborhood.
2012 Statistics from the Census Bureau
|Meaning of Race code||Year||Number of firms with or without paid employees||Sales, receipts, or value of shipments of firms with or without paid employees ($1,000)|
|Black or African American||2012||2,584,403||150,203,163|
I leave you with this, read more often, think less of yourself more often, what could we do to change the landscape of folks that look like us, surely we need each other.
Took me a long time to love and appreciate my “Brown skin”. Growing up in the projects and finding myself in a predominately “white” high school was not shocking to me or my system. You see I didn’t know I didn’t like my “Brown skin”. As a child I had a “Barbie Doll”, she was thin had long blond hair and pretty little pink lips. Hell I thought that “beautiful”. Needing my hair to be bone straight I wouldn’t use grease because I wanted it to “move” like my “white” cohort members. I vividly and painfully remember coming out of the shower one day singing, “I can’t get off my horse…” with the towel wrapped around my wet hair. I was swinging my head around as if the towel was my hair when all of a sudden to my horror, my brother had snatched that towel off my head and replied to my melody with, “you shouldn’t have never got up there.” He was so “Black” and down with “Pubic Enemy”. He understood what it meant to not have any of his mentors on “postage stamp”.
It was imperative that when engaged in speech I sounded “proper” and used the correct word, tense devoid of anything that would identify me as “Brown”. I prided myself on the feedback I received from “Brown” skinned people who found it so amazing that I sounded, “white”. I even took great joy in watching the reaction of “white” folk that I had the intense pleasure of meeting after talking with the person over the phone. You see I wasn’t as “Black” as my brother and what I though was cute — had some grave undertones that I was not aware of as young “Brown” teenager.
In as much as she claims with all that crap about “behaving” Black one cannot be “Black” because of their hair or the Black boyfriend or a big booty. Blackness is a beautiful thing and you know why? My mother and her mother and her mother had to fight all the way. My father and his father and his father had to fight all the way. Sure I had my own struggles, but I can now feel and appreciate their struggle. I am concerned about folks with cancer, but I can’t shave my head and say I can identify with the pain of a cancer patient. You see our Blackness was stripped, ripped, torn, tattered, spit on, chased by dogs, locked up, hung like wet clothes in the hot sun and in the heat of the night, it was raped, and cheated, our Blackness was laughed at, banned and cursed, our Blackness was baked at 100 degrees for over 400 years.
God has shown us great mercy and grace and yet we continue to neglect Him in our treatment towards each other….
Aside from all that – Baby girl you’ll never be Beautifully Black….